Exploration & Mining Glossary
Mining and Exploration glossary for words relevant to Peel Mining projects
Sulphide - A compound of sulphur and some other element.
Supergene - Supergene processes or enrichment are those that occur relatively near the surface as opposed to deep hypogene processes. Supergene processes include the predominance of meteoric water circulation with concomitant oxidation and chemical weathering. The descending meteoric waters oxidize the primary (hypogene) sulphide ore minerals and redistribute the metallic ore elements. Supergene enrichment occurs at the base of the oxidized portion of an ore deposit. Metals that have been leached from the oxidized ore are carried downward by percolating groundwater, and react with hypogene sulphides at the supergene-hypogene boundary. The reaction produces secondary sulphides with metal contents higher than those of the primary ore. This is particularly noted in copper ore deposits where the copper sulphide minerals are deposited by the descending surface waters.
Syncline - A structural deformity causing the rock layers to fold, creating an arch shape with the point of maximum curvature forming the hinge, which is concave-up. See Anticline for the reverse.
Tectonic brecciation - Also known as 'Fault breccia', it is brecciation caused by the brittle deformation from tectonic related stress/strains. See Breccia.
Tenement - A mineral claim provides an exclusive right to prospect for minerals within the claim area for 12 months, and to apply for a mining lease over all or a portion of the claim.
True width - Is the thickness (width) of the sulphide lens or vein which is measured perpendicular to it's surface (dip and strike). This measurement will always be the smallest reading of the thickness.
Turbidite - Is a clastically formed, sedimentary mass flow deposit, most abundantly located in deep marine environments, but can occur anywhere that there is a supply of sediment and a slope (deep lakes, continental slopes) . They are produced by gravity driven turbid mixtures of sediment temporarily suspended in water. They are the most common sedimentary deposit type seen within Peel Mining's projects (Example: the Wagga Tank Formation, Eastern Formation etc...), with low-and medium-density turbidites being the most frequency seen within them. They typically form the Bouma sequence succession, which has repeated sequences of graded silts to sandstones. Turbidites can spready laterally km's wide with layers a few mm to tens of m's thick.
Underground mine - The entire system of openings in an underground mine for the purpose of exploitation.
VMS - Layered deposits containing varying amounts of pyrite, copper, lead and zinc sulphide minerals, along with baryte. Commonly, also gold and silver. VMS deposits form when hot fluids circulate through rocks of the seafloor, dissolving various metals, and then come into contact with cold seawater, causing the metals to precipitate as piles of tiny mineral grains. VMS ores are often located near “black smokers”, jets of superheated water shooting from the ocean floor. Some ancient VMS deposits are today found on continents or islands, having been lifted from the seafloor by tectonic action.
Volcanic rocks - Igneous rocks formed from magma that has flowed out or has been violently ejected from a volcano.